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What is Nanometer?

A single bacterium is invisible to the naked eye. The diameter measured by a microscope is about five microns. For example, suppose a hair is 0.05 mm in diameter, cut it into 50,000 pieces in radial average, and each hair is about one nanometer thick. That is to say, a nanometer is 0.000001 mm. Nanoscience and technology, sometimes referred to as nanotechnology, is to study the properties and applications of materials with structure sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers. The development of nanotechnology has led to many new disciplines related to nanotechnology. There are nanomedicine, nanochemistry, nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, nanobiology and so on. Scientists all over the world know the importance of nanotechnology to the development of science and technology, so all countries in the world are at great expense to develop nanotechnology, trying to seize the strategic highland in the field of nanotechnology. In 1991, China held a seminar on the development strategy of nanotechnology and formulated the development strategy. Over the past decade, remarkable achievements have been made in the research of nanomaterials and nanostructures in China. At present, China has made more achievements in the field of nanomaterials than any other country in the world, which fully proves that China plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology. Nano-effect means that nano-materials have strange or abnormal physical and chemical properties that traditional materials do not possess. For example, the original conductive copper is not conductive to a certain nano-scale boundary, and the original insulated silicon dioxide and crystals begin conducting at a certain nano-level boundary. This is because nanomaterials have the characteristics of small particle size, large specific surface area, high surface energy, large proportion of surface atoms, and three special effects: surface effect, small size effect and macroscopic quantum tunnel effect. For solid powders or fibers, when their one-dimensional size is less than 100 nm, that is to say, they reach nanometer size. For ideal spherical particles, when the specific surface area is more than 60 m2/g, their diameter will be less than 100 nm, reaching nanometer size. At present, the micro-scale of many materials is mostly nano-scale, such as most semiconductor manufacturing standards are expressed in nano-scale. Until June 2012, the latest CPU process was 22 nm.

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