Release Date:2023/5/10 16:59:00

 At present, there are three main methods for the commercial synthesis of fluorocarbon surfactants: electrolysis, oligomerization and telomerization.

  1. Electrochemical Fluorination:
  The industrial electrolysis method uses hydrocarbon carboxylic acid chloride or sulfonyl chloride as raw material, dissolves or disperses it in HF solution, controls a certain temperature and voltage to react, and the final product of electrolysis is perfluorocarboxylic acid fluoride or perfluorosulfonyl fluoride, and then Various fluorocarbon surfactants can be prepared through various reactions such as hydrolysis, amidation, and quaternization. The electrolysis method was applied earlier, the reaction is one-step, and the process is simple. However, since the fluorination reaction is carried out step by step in the electrolysis process, the reaction products are complex, the yield is low, and the product structure is single, basically anionic. At present, electrolysis is basically used in domestic production, and the products are single and repeated, mainly perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives.
  2. Oligomerization:
 Use fluorine anion to catalyze tetrafluoroethylene or hexafluoropropylene for anionic polymerization reaction to obtain branched perfluoroalkanes with unsaturated double bonds, and then use double bonds as active functional groups to perform various reactions to prepare fluorocarbon surfactants. The safety of this method is relatively high, and the reaction is well controlled, but because the surface activity of the branched chain product is not high, its application is greatly limited.
  3. Telomerization:
  In industry, pentafluoroiodoethane is used as telomerization agent, tetrafluoroethylene is used as telomerization monomer, and the telomerization reaction is carried out under the action of peroxide initiator, and the final product is perfluoroiodoalkane. Various types of fluorocarbon surfactants can be prepared from perfluoroiodoalkanes through various reactions. The biggest advantage of the telomerization method is that it can synthesize the intermediate perfluoroalkane iodide and further convert it into another important intermediate perfluoroalcohol, from which various types of fluorocarbon surfactants can be synthesized. Overall, this method is the best.


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